Полоцкий государственный университет

Polotsk
State
University

DIDAKTIC CATEGORIES OF THE AIME AND CONTENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN EDUCATIONAL TENDENCIES

L. KHVEDCHENJA

The article is devoted to the problem of aims and content development in language education in the context of modern pedagogical transformation. The latter proclaims priority of educational aims to instructional which in its turn brings about certain changes in the mechanisms of aims, forms, content and subject matter formation, symbolizes a new paradigm in the assessment of the quality of education. Methodology of foreign language teaching comprises student-centered approach, foreign language culture as a source of the content of teaching, communicativeness as a general strategy of language education, professionally oriented language teaching in non-linguistic universities. The author analyses the peculiarities of the aim formation in the context of the competence approach, layed in the foundation of a new Standard and a range of particular programs for humanities. The necessity of theoretical and methodological correction and adaptation of the competence approach to humanistic traditions of home education, developmental by its nature, is also stressed. Further on the article deals with the particular questions of the content of foreign language development for non-linguistic universities, asserting professional orientation as the leading principle.

 

PEDAGOGY

THE CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT AS FACTOR OF HUMANIZATION OF SHOOLCHILDEN’S UP BRINGING AND TEACHING

А. SMANTSER

The cultural-educational environment is a set of spiritual, cultural and material conditions and the influences providing education and education of the schoolboy according to culture, consecutive pedagogical support of its development. As difficult structural education, it switches on educational process, educational job, programs cultural and an additional education, out-of-class job, and also interrelations with environment. All components of the cultural-educational environment, operating in coordination, influence education of the person of the schoolboy according to its requirements, interests and propensities. The cultural-educational environment of an educational institution promotes formation of the humane person, creation of corresponding conditions at which the maintenance, the structure, training and education methods in aggregate reflect the processes occurring in culture as a whole, and also provide possibilities for developing activity of pupils in an educational institution.

PEDAGOGICAL PROCESS AS THE OBJECT OF THE SYSTEM OF DESCRIPTIVE AND PRESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

S. SEVERIN

In the article the essence of the terms «pedagogical system», «pedagogical process as dynamic system», «systematic projecting of the pedagogical process», «pedagogical conformity», «pedagogical norms» are defined. The author undertakes critical reflection of the structure of pedagogical process, which takes place in the special organized conditions. And these conditions connect first of all with the contents and technology of the pedagogical interaction. A teacher and a pupil are the active participants and the subjects of pedagogical process, who define its motion and results. The links of such components as the teachers and pupils, the contents and the means of the education give birth to the real pedagogical process as the dynamic system. The author also presents the model of pedagogical process as the result of descriptive and prescriptive analysis.

THE GOVERNESS INSTITUTION’S BEGINNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE

S. SERGEJKO

The article presents a historiographical aspect of the governess institution’s development. The analyses of the thinkers’ ideas and opinions of different epochs on the problem of home teacher and the study of real practice of home education in the different countries give us possibility to determine that this process was fulfilled by nurses and wet-nurses, preceptors and teachers, au pairs and tutors who accomplished various functions in accordance with existing national traditions. The traditions of organization of home education and up bringing in different countries such as England, Germany, France are examined. The usage of home teachers and preceptors in Russia was changed considerably in accordance with Russian culture’s peculiarities and the forming strictly Russian national mentality. The generalization of the notions about the governess’ institutions in Belarus gives up the opportunity to distinguish the stages in its construction and development. The comprehension of its peculiarities determine a number of governess’ progressive traditions, used in modern conditions of the preschoolers’ home education. Also it gives possibility to the author to come to the conclusion that further studying and estimation of the governess’ contribution to native pedagogical theory and practice will assist to revealing of the pedagogical conditions and mechanisms which stimulate the high quality of the modern home teacher’s studying service.

ROLE OF THE SOCIAL-HUMANITARIAN SUBJECTS IN THE PROCESS OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF THE STUDENTS’ YOUTH

O. VOZHGUROVA

The article is devoted to the problem of actualization of the role of the social-humanitarian subjects in the higher school’s conditions. The meaning of the education is grounded, in particular, the political education as the necessary form of the preparation to political socialization in the process of which we form the qualities and properties useful for a man for adaptation to the given political system and his fulfillment some of the definite political roles. The political socialization is uncovered as an integral part of general socialization. Also we determine its stages and factors. Data of the sociological investigation which give possibility to define the level of the students’ political activity, the presence of interest to the political life of the country is given in the article. The sources of the information’s reception about the political events are revealed. The actuality of the social-humanitarian subjects’ study, in particular, politology as a factor of political socialization is confirmed by the conducted sociological investigation.

PROJECT-TENTATIVE APPROACH IN THE SYSTEM OF QUALITY’S MANAGEMENT OF THE HIGHER PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION

M. GLOBENKO

Quality of education is one of constitutive components and the most important characteristics of educational process, pedagogical activities, under the conditions of free competition with the existence of market regulation mechanism of the educational practice as well as in an enclosed educational situation. ‘Quality’ by itself is only a means which helps to find the accordance between the issue of the aim (description of the product quality from the producer’s point of view), application (system of the quality guarantee during the time, determined by the producer) and the customer requirements (demand for the product, market services during the time it’s being on the top). Today the problem of efficiency and quality of a pedagogical education is one of the priorities. It is a question not so much of development of the monitoring system of quality, how many about introduction of the complex system of maintenance of the quality, covering curricula, teaching personnel, methodical maintenance of educational process, system of total certification on an exit. In our days there is a problem of training of personnel which professionally would attend to management in the field of quality. It is obvious that today in the CIS countries there are only separate elements of system of training of the personnel in the field of quality. Creation of the unique, complete, coordinated system – is an aim of the nearest future.

PRINCIPALS’ REALIZATION OF APPLICATION OF THE STIMULATION’S MEASURES TO CONVICTS DEPRIVED THE FREEDOM

F. KONYSHEV

The article deals with the problem of principals of application of the measures of stimulation to convicts deprived the freedom, aspirating to correction. The following principals are picked out: individualization, humanism, expedience, effectiveness, legality, justice and stimulation’s proportion. The detailed knowledge of the given principles and their correct usage by the criminal-executive system’s collaborators help to penetrate into the structure of the correctional process, to see the perspective of the correctional process’s organization, to use different directions and methods of the influence on the consciousness and behaviour of the disturbers of settled order of serving punishment in the practical activity. Also this helps to define more optimal means and forms of the work with disturbers with the aim to form the readiness to conduct the law-obedient mode of life as in the places of deprived the freedom and also in the conditions of freedom. According to the advanced tasks the Criminal-executive Code determines the convicts’ law position and the system of defence’s guarantees of their rights and law’s interests.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE ON THE BASIS OF CREATIVE METHODS OF TEACHING

E. MIKHAILOWSKAYA

In the article the role of creative methods of studies in the development of students’ cognitive independence is considered, several variants possible of these methods’ implementation into the practice of English language teaching are shown. Creative methods of studies, the aim of which is to develop a creative component of cognitive independence of an individual, are systematized on the basis of native and foreign practices studied. The definition of the essence of the notion “cognitive independence” is given, practical work-outs of English classes, where these methods are applied, are cited. However the author points out that it is not the occasional use of creative methods of studies in teaching but their application in complex and system gives a positive result. At that the author of the article does not deny the use of traditional methods of studies, but due to the change in targeting and orientation of the educa-tional paradigm of the Republic of Belarus considers it necessary to increase the portion of creative methods of studies.

THE FORMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF PUPIL RELATIONSHIP AS THE CONDITION OF REALIZATION OF THE UPBRINGING CONTINUITY

T. ZHUKOVA

The article presents the basic areas of the activity in the realization of the upbringing continuity. The programme «Our Relationship» is regarded as one of the effective means of this activity. Adoption of this programme to the process of education in a comprehensive school presupposes an active interaction of all parties of the educational space: the direct influences on the teenager or the young man from the adults authoritative for them (parents and teachers), pupils class groups and indispensable involvement of the pupils themselves with their problems and the peculiarities of age-specific crises. According to the programme, teachers should create such an educational environment that meets modern requirements and needs of the upbringing and education, and gives pupils the opportunity to solve their age-specific problems in the process of realization of the upbringing continuity.

SOCIAL-PEDAGOGICAL IDEAS: HISTORY AND THE PRESENT

N. ANDRUSCHENKO

The key ideas’ forming are shown in their historical succession. In the result of the development and adherence they became the base of the social pedagogy’s development in Belarus in 1917 – 1936. In future the main ideas transformed in the social pedagogy’s principals. Questions of the social-pedagogical character were discussed in the works of philosophers from the ancient time. Problems of the social-pedagogical direction were touched by the enlighteners of Belarus. The ideas formed in the period of the development of the social pedagogy in 1917 – 1936 furthered to the progressive development of the social pedagogy after 1936. That is the accent of the attention on the expedience of the external factors’ investigations which defined the child’s development; the up bringing of the personality taking into consideration the knowledge of the social environment; the formation of the necessary social skills and habits to the children permitting them to adopt to the surrounding environment and to function successfully in the society.

THE FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ READINESS TO MASTER THE COMPETENCES

E. BABENKO

For successful realization of the competence model in the educational process it is necessary to form the students’ realization of their new aims – a change from studying of single disciplines to mastering the competences. That is why students of Polotsk State University at their first year are read special lectures, and since this academic year it is suggested to write an essay “My Plans of Studies at University”. In the article the author shares the results of writing this essay by the students of different specialities.

INTERDISCIPLINE INTERACTION IN THE PROCESS OF THE PRACTICAL TRAINING OF THE ECONOMICAL COLLEGE’S STUDENTS

V. KHMEL

At present the direction of social and economical development of our country is the crucial factor that determines the contents and the form of professional training in specialized secondary schools. The analysis of the need for increasing the quality of education without its prolongation reveals the fact that the development of new technologies for intensifying the process of study is quite relevant. The technology “Educational firm”, which is widely used in the West and quite known in Russia, combines the integration approach and practice orientation of the professional training. The article proves the necessity and the possibility of implementation of the given technology in the process of teaching of accountants, it describes the developed organizational and pedagogical conditions of using this technology in the teaching process, it gives the structure and form of the didactic material, it offers the methods for students to work with the specialized software aiming at increasing their activity and developing creativity.

 

METHODS

THE PROBLEM OF CRITICAL THINKING’S FORMING TO STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN TECHNICAL EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

А. KONYSHEVA

The problem of critical thinking’s forming to technical speciality’s students in the process of teaching foreign languages is under consideration in the article. The effective management of the cognitive process in the study is possible only in the case when it is based on the students’ active thinking activity. A person with such style of thinking is ready to constant development in technologies and welcomes every new possibility for solving more complicated intellectual problems. Working out the problem of forming critical thinking to students in the process of teaching foreign languages, we proceed from the point of view that today we witness the gradual change of the traditional study’s paradigm, which conventionally can be reproduced in the form of the schema “teacher-textbook-student” to a new one, where the activity of learning but not the teaching is the main. Critical thinking is considered as one of the main components of the structure of specialist’s personality.

THE BASIS OF THE OPTIMIZATION OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION’S PROCESS

N. KACHALOV, A. KONYSHEVA

The necessity of conception’s reconsideration of the specialists’ training having higher education, the intensification of the humanitarian component in the contents of the higher professional education including language teaching is conditioned by the deep crisis of the phenomenon in the development of the civilizational process. One of the important directions of the humanitarian education’s realization in the higher school is the large work on the requalification of the scientific-pedagogical staff on the humanitarian sciences, new educational and scientific literature publication on the questions of humanitarian education including the foreign authors’ works. Among the projects for special purposes working out on the main directions in the development of the higher education it is necessary to foresee the projects, which have directions to optimization of the teaching foreign languages in the non language universities, as well. The active methods of the foreign languages’ teaching and the approaches to its optimization are discussed in the article. Also we mark the reserves of the effectiveness’ enlargement in the field of teaching foreign languages in the non language universities.

PROJECT METHOD IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING OF NONLINGUISTIC SPECIALITIES’ STUDENTS (ON THE BASIS OF LOCAL MATERIAL)

Y. BUTOR

The project method has arisen in XIX century, has positively proved itself in a foreign teaching practice and is successfully used by domestic teachers as the alternative form of training. The use of project method in foreign language teaching is directed to the inclusion of students to an active cogitative activity by means of which they study to express their ideas in the foreign language and to communicate. During the interaction and dialogue in foreign language with the partners on the project work students get the communicative competence which is the mortgage of realization of their successful speaking in the future. Besides the project method gives students an opportunity to realize their creative potential, to acquire practical knowledge and skills. Considering didactic and educational advantages of the local material study in teaching the foreign language, it is expedient to organize project activity on its basis. Thus, it helps to provide the substantial side of the foreign language teaching, increase motivation in studying and prepare students to participate in direct dialogue of cultures.

MODULE TECHNOLOGY OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN HIGHER TECHNICAL EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

L. ZAKHARIEVA

Module technology of foreign teaching in technical higher educational establishments is depicted in this article. This allows to stimulate students’ educational activities, improves knowledge and professional training quality, activates forms and methods of supervisory self testing. Module is the main means of teaching. It is the complete information unit with its own aim, content, programming, didactic and methodical support. Students achieve the specific goal with the aid of teacher or on their own. Module may be fixed in educational and methodical complex which represents the system of interrelated means of teaching and ensures the students’ educational activities according to their individual features. The approximate content of module is represented. Recommendations of module developing are offered.

 

PSYCHOLOGY

CRISIS OF SUCCESS AND COMPETENCE IN THE STUDENTS’ DIDACTIC ADAPTATION AT COLLEGE

L. MIRZAJANOVA

The analysis of the results of the success crisis parameters and symptoms and the competence study in the students’ didactic adaptation at college has been presented. Basing on the one-year study of the results the conclusion about the absence of the links between the students’ progress in study, their confidence in success, competence in educational activities on the stage of adaptation and the common confidence of girls and boys has been formulated. Basing on the correlation analysis the links between the power of self-efficiency in first-year students’ educational activities and their progress in study have been revealed. The reasons for experiencing the cognitive crisis in didactic adaptation by first-year students at college have been defined. The necessity of making adaptation mechanisms op-timum by means of the educational establishment’s socio-psychological service’s supporting first-year students, cre-ating the conditions for the students’ personality self-realization in different activities, forming their high self-efficiency with further generalizing on other situations the earlier behavior in which was less effective, using the positive energy of the crisis, attributing the projecting character to the spontaneously emerging crisis by the educator has been grounded.

CROSS-CONFESSIONAL DISCOURSE IN PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION

E. MALINOVSKIY

The structure of pedagogic communication immanently includes the discourse of cognition, appraisal, dignity and freedom that together compose a cross with rhizome ? as an “applicate or z-axis of confessionality” what means acceptance. The acceptance contains an element of singularity and exeptionality of each person the index of communication with which differs from zero. The confessionality of the person as conceptional intention is a frame of psychological reflection and it positively correlates with equivalent of prosperity of a person in a peer group, also with stage characteristics of moral evolution. Subjective interpretation of the discourse in the dialogue creates the possibility of disclosure of moral values from the top of the recognition of each in a favorable climate of interpersonal relations. By virtue of what is confirmed by the assumption about the relationship a sense of regional identity and the spectrum level of moral development in terms of pedagogical discourse of communication.

COMPUTER GAMES ADDICTION: SPECIFICITY AND FEATURES OF THE INFLUENCE ON THE PERSONALITY DURING ADOLESCENCE

Z. TRAFIMCHIK

This article represents interesting information on the relevant problem of modern society – the computer or video game addiction. In particular, the text is devoted to the problem of interpersonal relations, social adaptation, and the structure of psychological defenses and self-concept of personal with computer game addiction during adolescence. The study of self-concept of personal with computer game addiction during adolescence is defined relationship between the concepts I-real and I-ideal as components of self-concept of personality, clarified their relationship in the structure of personality. The article contains the analysis of the empirical study results of “I-virtual” – a new component of a self-conception of the computer addicted personality.Is devoted a number of practical recommendations for psychologists who work with persons suffering from computer game addiction.

EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING AS INDEX OF FRONTIER GUARDER’S SUCCESSFUL ACTIVITY

S. ULITKO

The problem of emotional well-being of military person is stabilized, the essence of the given condition and its role in success of professional work of the frontier guarder is analyzed in the article. This article focuses attention to a number of conditions of emotional trouble of the every person, features of their lisped aid ways under the prevention of emotional treble of military person. Author has the purpose to learn cadets aid officers to work with their subordinates on formation at them such conditions wish promote the successful decision of service problems. The mental’s health understanding in world outstanding must become the fundamental base of the military’s generally human reliability. Articles materials have recommendatory character and can be used in teaching and educational process of the military organizations of the Republic of Belarus.

 

PHYSICAL TRAINING AND SPORT

SPIRITUAL-MORAL ASPECTS OF CADETS’ PATRIOTIC EDUCATION IN ACADEMY OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL TRAINING AND SPORTS

A. GLAZIRIN

The key positions in ideological and up bringing work are defined nowadays in the system of internal affairs’ organs of Republic Belarus. The main sing of patriotism is the responsible attitude to fulfillment of the official duties of the collaborators of the internal affair’ organs. This paper is devoted to the consideration of spiritual-moral aspects of patriotic education of cadets of Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs by means of physical training and sports. The conception “patriotism” is clarified in the course of the consideration. Features of Sparta and Athens systems of education are depicted. The spiritual side of patriotic education is substantiated which is represented by theoretical and practice oriented components in the system of applied professional physical training of future militiamen. It is stated that the beginning of the activities in the sphere of spiritual-moral patriotic up bringing of cadets of Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs by means of physical training and sports may be included some material of up bringing direction in the contents of concrete topics of the lecture course, seminars and practical lessons with the aim to form the feeling of patriotism to cadets.

RISE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION INVIGORATION EFFECT OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS STUDENTS

V. NASCALOV

Adverse ecological conditions are one of factors I cause-shchih negative consequences in level of physical development, physical readiness and a rising generation state of health. In high schools students with the big distinctions in level of physical readiness arrive. Modern programs on fizichesko education do not give expected improving effect from? That at organizatsii physical training is not considered ecological to conditions during time behind physical exercises. As a result of the conducted research the technique, allowed to raise improving effect of physical training stu-dentov is developed. The basic components of this technique of a steel: the account of monitoring of a condition of the surrounding air environment, both in daily, and in annual dynamics; before an exit for employment on open athletic field in a special hall, with cleared adsorbtsi-onnym the method the air environment, spent гипоксическая training before and after zanja.

PROGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDICATORS OF PHYSIC DEVELOPMENT, MOTOR READINESS, ATHLETS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL TESTING AND THEIR DERMATOGLYPHICS AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SPORTS SPECIALIZATION

Y. BARANAYEU

In article the systematised data about prognostichesky are presented the importance of various indicators of physical development, impellent readiness, psychophysiological testing and dermatoglifik at athletes of various qualification at a stage of initial sports specialisation. The carried out research has allowed to consider not only correlation structure of interrelations, but also to track its changes connected with growth of sports skill of young athletes. The received results testify that such indicators as mass-height index, carpal dynamometry, results in run on 30 metres straight off, in a broad jump from a place, in a threefold standing jump, indicators of simple visually-motor reaction and dermatoglifik (type of a pattern and flange the account on the first big finger of the right hand) can widely be used as reliable criteria at selection and forecasting of high-speed, skorostno-power abilities of athletes at a stage of initial sports specialisation.

THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MECHANISMS OF DECISION MAKING AS THE BASIS FOR ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND TECHNICAL AND TACTIC TRAINING

V. RUDENIK, V. GAVRONIK, N. ANTIPIN

Tactic training and its interrelation with technical training in sports and professionally – applied physical training were investigated with the aim of optimization of teaching to solve motor tasks. As a result the principle of differentiation of “taking decisions” was defined making it possible to divide the process of tactic training into logically interrelated stages. Differention of motor tasks was also realized, and the processes of technical and tactic training were combined into a single process of teaching to solve motor tasks, arising under motor activity conditions. Efficiency of the worked-out theoretical model is confirmed by the experimental investigation results.

MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING PROCESS OF BIATHLETES ON THE BASIS OF COMPLEX TESTING

N. STANSKY

The problems concerning the methods of biathletes training using complex testing of physical and special efficiency indices determining sport results in biathlone are examined in the work under consideration. The level of biathletes efficiency depending on sport qualification has been defined as a result. Correlation relation of sport result to tests characterizing physical and special fitness to work has also been determined. On the basis of the given system of complex testing one can: determine main factors of efficiency of qualified biathletes and the dynamics of their progress on all-the-year-round training stages; develop model characteristics of physical and special fitness to work of biathletes taking into account the level of their sport skill. These characteristics can be used as a criterion of control of training process on the year cycle stages, and as a criterion of selection of perspective sportsmen and sport results forecast; discover weak and strong sides of sportsmen training for a differentiated approach to the training process management taking into consideration individual peculiarities of biathletes.

KINESIO TEX TAPING SYSTEM

М. LESCHINA

Studying of scientific works is spent to areas Kinesio Tex Taping by research of the scientifically-methodical and sports-pedagogical literature, the Internet of resources. During research main principles and features Kinesio Tex Taping have been studied, and also clinical researches of effects Kinesio Tex Taping on ability of a muscle to be reduced, proprioception, on a range of movement of a trunk, lymphatic flow. Kinesio Tex Taping is a unique technique which already throughout many years is used by sports doctors and physiatrists of many countries of Europe and America. It possesses the whole set of unique properties which are absent at classical white тейпа. As a result of the long-term researches analysed by us, it has been proved, that Kinesio Tex Taping it is capable to increase bioelectric activity and amplitude of movement of muscles. However Kinesio Tex Taping is not an independent method of restoration of sports working capacity, it should be used, as addition to the basic therapy and other means of treatment, such as chriotherapy, hydrotherapy, massage and electro stimulation.

THE PLACE OF AGRARIAN AND ECOLOGIC TOURISM IN THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PERIPHERAL TERRITORY (BY WAY OF EXAMPLE OF POLOTSK REGION)

A. ZAKHARAU, U. GANSKI

Prospects for the development of agro-ecological tourism in the Polotsk region defined by existing objective tendencies: the desire to increase exports of tourism services in the context of underdevelopment and low quality level of the domestic tourist infrastructure, based on that – focus on tourists from the basic requirements for accommodation, as well as a number of territorial factors, the State Program of Rural Development, the National Programme of development of tourism in the Republic of Belarus, etc. Article contains summary results of the expert assessment of the capacity of the Polotsk region for the development of this type of tourism business provided the rationale for an integrated ecological and socio-economic expertise as the most effective instrument to determine the effectiveness of any kind business with socio-economic and environmental points of view.

HEALTH STATE DINAMICS OF PUPILS

D. DENISOV, N. APRASJUKHINA

The annually prophylactic medical examinations of the pupils of the 11-th forms were held in the secondary school № 14 in the town of Novopolotsk. On the bases of these data was made a careful study of pupils state health dynamics. It is established that during school years the state health from 58,7 to 20,0 % of pupils has degraded, from 53,4 to 29,5 % had already had certain diseases before going to school and only 26,5 % of school leavers have a good state of health. Among the most spread diseases of pupils are the eye diseases. The system circulation of the blood takes the second place. On the third place are the diseases of bone-muscular system and connective tissue. It is established that the level of morbidity is lower in classes of general education than in profile lyceum classes.