Полоцкий государственный университет

Polotsk
State
University

THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURALLY-BUILDING PRODUCTS FOR LARGE-PANEL APARTMENT HOUSE RECONSTRUCTION

G. ZAHARKINA, J. SUVOROVA

Concept of reconstruction and its main parameters are considered in the paper. The direction of recon-struction of residential houses with higher levels of accomplishment and comfort of living through the add-attic floors and extension of additional volumes to the end sections are described in the paper. Analysis of the structural layout of an apartment house (Series 1-464) and its architectural and planning solutions is carried out. Version of the reconstruction of a five-story house typical section design and the most effective design solutions are presented. The proprietary authoring bay window and balcony suspended and two author’s design of roof windows are proposed. The cost-effectiveness of the above project are evaluated in the paper.

THE CONCEPT OF THE LYUBCHA’S CASTLE DEVELOPMENT AS TOURIST CENTER

A. BAKATOVICH, A. LEVADNY, P. LISHTVAN

There is the concept of a tourist center development in Lyubcha’s castle. The conception suggests full restoration of architectural monument. Performed spatial modeling of Lyubchsa’s castle complex allows us to evaluate visually the proposed concept, taking into account the different stages of its existence and turning the castle into one of the most important historical and cultural centers of Belarus. The developed model proposes the restoration of the castle, the southern and entry tower and the restoration Neman’s and the fourth wooden tower. Great importance to improvement of the inner castle area is given including the construction of theatrical and entertainment area. The perimeter of the castle square will be closed with restored defensive walls. Long-stay tourists are suggesting the complex of sightseeing and recreational itineraries include visits of Nalibok-skaya forests, water walks on the Niemen, visiting historic sites and monuments in the Lyubcha, Novogrudok, Vselub, Lida, and other localities. Besides there are exhibitions and cultural events (including historical set-tings) supposed in the castle. Such active conception of functioning of the tourist center will allows Lyubcha’s castle to flourish and have a perspective in the future.

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF “NAFTAN” PREFACTORY TERRITORY

I. ZENCHENKOVA, A. ZELENKO

Reconstruction of a prefactory zone of the large industrial enterprise demands from the architect and the designer of special knowledge and the analytical approach. In given article methods and principles of transformation of such territories on an example of a prefactory zone of Open Society “Naftan” are considered. The analysis of existing problems of the given building is carried out, and also variants of their decision are offered. On the basis of materials from references methods and the principles most suitable to reconstruc-tion of considered territory, and ways of their practical application for transformation of a prefactory zone of “Naftana” are collected.

SPASO-EVFROSINEVSKY MONASTERY IN POLOTSK

R. PLATONOVA, M. PLATONOVA

This article presents the analysis of historical, cultural and architectural and planning aspects of the origin and development of one of the most unique architectural monuments of Polotsk – Spaso-Evfrosinevsky Monastery with Spaso-Preobrazhenskaya Church, which was built 12th century. This buildings are the only extant monuments of the history and culture of Polotsk land, because other numerous stone buildings that belongs to this period can be recognized by the ruins, archaeological excavations, written sources and archival photos. Town-planning, historical, cultural and educational role of Spaso-Evfrosinevsky Monastery and Spaso-Preobrazhenskaya Church is studied.

SPASO-PREOBRAZHENSK CHURCH OF SPASO-EVFROSINIEVSKI MONASTERY IN POLOTSK. FIGURATIVE BASIS OF THE ARCHITECTURAL FORM

G. LAVRETSKY

The church of Transfiguration of Savoir in Spaso-Eufrosinievski monastery is an outstanding example of development of Byzantine tradition in Old Russian architecture in XII c. Well-defined planning structure, existing in significant for Polotsk dukedom church, was the base for development architectural school at that time. Planning, metrology, symbolism of spaces point out to some principles took place there. As function and theology are special to ancient building. Comparison of architectural elements with the Bible text confirms this.

PRINCIPLES OF PROPORTION IN THE SYRIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN IV – VII CENTURIES

ХАRМА OSAMA MOHAMMED

The article is devoted to analyze of proportional system, that took place in principle types of Syrian Christian churches (IV – VII s.) Latitudinal, basilical, centrical compositions were developed in Syria at that time. In foundation such types of architectural and spatial system general approaches of church planning were materialized. Planning was based on employment of principle compatibility of small elements and whole shape. Syrian Christian architecture of that time had great influence on development of Byzantine culture. Syrian basilical buildings of IV – VII s. include elements of new trends in church space. Such composition influenced on creation of christian church image in the West Europe.

WORK OF THIN-WALLED METAL RODS

V. KISILEV, Y. POPKOV, V. ATRAKHIMOVICH

The analyisis of existing methods of calculation of thin-walled rods of metal structures is made. Analysis indicates that the calculation is based on meeting the conditions of the strength of the efforts, or even the strain, but obtained through, efforts of the methods of materials do not always provide the necessary reliability. The problem of finding the stresses in thin-walled rods is reduced to the problem of computing the plane stress state of each of its constituent bands. Taking into account the efforts of the interaction determined by the conditions of the continuity of deformation in the ground sections.

DEFINITION OF THE MOST DANGEROUS SURFACE OF SLIDING AT CALCULATION OF STABILITY OF SLOPES BY A METHOD OF CYLINDRICAL SURFACES OF SLIDING

A. KREMNEV, D. HLUKHAU, N. VISHNYAKOV

The problem of definition of the most dangerous surface of sliding is considered at calculation of stability of a slope by a method of cylindrical surfaces of sliding. Known recommendations about search of the centers of the most dangerous surfaces of sliding of various authors are considered. Realization of algorithm of calculation of stability of slopes on the computer with use of the objective-associative system developed in Polotsk state uni-versity is offered. By means of the given program the analysis of an arrangement of the most dangerous surfaces of sliding for slopes of a various geological structure is made. Conclusions are drawn on application the rec-ommendations offered earlier about search of the centers of the most dangerous surfaces of sliding.

RELIABILITY OF DAMAGED CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS

U. ZAVISTOUSKI, A. KORABAU

Reliabitity is estimated or predicted on the basis of the research made on the performance of the system parametres which altogether determine the condition of the system. The choice of the major technical characteristics is to a great extent arbitrary, that is why independent parametres are only chosen for estimation, which allows to estimate reliability of each parametre separately. As there exists a wide range of types and modifications of constructional elements that perform differently in varying systems, the results of the reliability of mechanical or technologycal systems are approximal and are used at the projection phase. More accurate reliability ratesand the addjuxtment of the system are made at the stages of the construction elaboration and elevation.

CONTACT SEAMS IN REINFORCED CONCRETE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

Е. KREMNEVA, Е. KHAMENOK

We consider a point about contact seams in reinforced concrete composite structures. Preparation of a contact seam is one of the important factors of an overall performance of a reinforced concrete composite structure. It is possible under the condition of the joint decision dealing with materials technology, design and tech-nological problems. We show conditional classification of contact seams of reinforced concrete composite structures. We consider constructive and technological actions, and also materials technology aspects. They provide reliable coupling of layers of a composite structure. We do conclusions about influence of contact surface preparation, ways of concrete consolidation and classes of concrete layers on contact seam durability. It is actual under production conditions on a working site, with a view of material, labour and power resources economy.

INCREASING OF CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WELDING SEAMS BY ALLOYED WELDING WIRE

О. SHUMOV

In this work some approach to increase the corrosion resistance of welding seams are considered. In-creasing of corrosion resistance of joint welding parts of aluminum alloy was reached. The corrosion resistance was increased by alloying of welding wire by galvanic precipitation of Mn – Zn – Cr coating and corresponding heat treatment conditions. Strength value of welding seams depending on the heat treatment conditions in argon shielded joint welding with alloyed welding wire was defined. The ageing functions based on the research results was evaluated, that permitted to optimize the subsequent heat treatment conditions to reach the maximal corrosion resistance of welding joint. The use of this measures increased the corrosion resistance of welding seams gone up by 15 % in comparison with corrosion resistance of seams welded by simple welding resistance.

THE METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF MOISTURE CARRYING OVER FACTOR FOR BUILDING MATERIALS

V. NIKITIN, V. KOFANOV

The concepts of coefficient describing the mechanism of moisture transport in building materials at a capillary diffusivity sectional. A series of existing experimental and computing methods of definition this coefficient in capillary-porous materials surveyed. Is shown, that at definition coefficient of moisture transport by existing methods it is necessary to fulfill rather long-lived and composite experiments, to use the expensive equipment and not prime computing procedures. In this connection the composite, precise enough and theoretically justified method definition of diffusion coefficient in building materials is offered new, least. The comparison of diffusion coefficients, obtained by various methods for is model of a ceramic material and cellular concrete is carried out.

PREPARATION, PRACTICE ALKYLBENZENES AND THE POSSIBLE EXTENSION OF THEIR USE

A. SHVEDOV, A. SHVEDOV

In this article present analysis of the global chemical industry production of substances such as alkylbenzenes. The analysis shows that to date, constantly improving methods of their preparation. Most of the alkylbenzenes are produced for a surface-active agents, stabilizing additives to oils and fuels. Despite the redistribution of production between countries alkylbenzenes (reduction of output in one with a simultaneous increase in the other) available power of world production loaded with no more than 80 %. At the same time, the market building industry is growing demand on chemical additives in concrete, betraying him with a number of new features enhance the quality. Getting the most effective supplements in many technologies based on the sulphonation of various compounds such as paraffins, benzene and other.

STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF MASONRY MORTARS WITH MICROFILLING MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF THE WATER TREATMENT RAW SLUDGE

Y. VISHNYAKOVA

Application possibility of microfilling material from water treatment raw sludge for masonry mortars is observed. It is offered the technique allowing to simplify and to speed up process of definition of strength of solutions in bed joins. It is developed the form for manufacturing mortar samples, allowing to model operational conditions of a masonwork. Results of research of cohesive resistance of cement slurries with additives of a lime and a powder of a raw sludge of a water treatment with a ceramic brick are performed. Parametres of strength and relative deformations of a brickwork on brick columns with use cement-limy and cement-sludge mortars are studied. By results of the spent tests it is determined the possibility of use of a raw sludge of a water treatment in the capacity of a microfilling material for mortars is installed. Mortarss with the additive of a powder of a raw sludge on the basic parametres match to standard requirements.

FORMATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF SILICATE BRICK RECEIVED FROM WASTE OF THE FOUNDRY INDUSTRY

D. SHABANOV, А. IVANENKO

The paper deals with the processes of structure formation autoclaved silica material is obtained by using waste foundry. As the waste the waste molding sand, granulated cupola slag. Studied the phase composition of samples. The correlation between the parameters of the phases and physical and mechanical properties of the material. Analyzed the influence of the raw mixture, the parameters of the technological treatment on phase composition of the samples. Concluded that the optimal parameters of the raw mixture by using waste foundry based on the processes of phase formation.

EFFECT OF DIRECTION OF LAYING FILLER ON THE STRENGTH AND INSULATING PROPERTIES OF ARBOLIT

А. YAGUBKIN

Oriented stacking wood filler Arbolit will increase strength and reduce the thermal conductivity at a constant average density. Arbolit on samples fabricated using different technologies for sealing (existing-vibrocompaction, vibrocompaction with cargo; developed in Polotsk State University of Technology vibratory compaction) conducted studies to determine the strength, density and thermal conductivity. It is shown that the use of technology vibratory compaction can increase strength from 5 to 50 %, depending on the average density. And also to reduce the thermal conductivity of an average of 20 % due to oriented stacking wood filler. The calculation of wall thickness using a standard thermal conductivity and with the possibility of its reduction when using the technology of vibratory compaction.

STRENGTH ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

V. ZUBCZOV, V. BOZYLEV

Characteristics of strength of structural materials with the stress condition close to homogeneous are of-fered and proved. The standard technique for definition of strength of materials by test results under breaking load is based on the simplified representation about performance of a material under load and does not satisfy the requirements of modern engineering practice. It is offered to use as base strength characteristics an elastic strength, modulus of elasticity, viscosity and hygroscopicity instead of an ultimate strength, relative deformation, a time from the beginning of deformation before destruction and ultimate resilience that allows easier, more operatively, reliable, without destruction and during object exploitation to gain the information for strength assessment of structural materials.

OPERATIONAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAFF SLABS

N. DAVYDENKO

Results of researches of operational and technical characteristics of chaff slabs are observed. Full-scale tests have shown that chaff slabs equally well exposed to a sawcut handsaws, petrol-powered saw and a buzz saw, are easily drilled by means of manual and power drills without structure disturbance of a material. It is discovered that impact by a naked flame does not call ignition of a material and there is only a coalification of chaff slabs. The water glass as a binding part of slabs allows to keep a material from destruction by rodents. Researching of sorption humidity of chaff slabs have shown that the offered material has more consistent structure with interpenetrating components, than straw slabs, interfering a sweeping moisture pick-up that improves heat engineering characteristics of chaff slab and envelope building as a whole. Thus samples of chaff slabs have shown major durability to a mould growth and a punctiform fungus in comparison with straw slabs. The heat engineering parametres of chaff slab and straw slabs such as density of heat flow, thermal resistance to a heat, thermal conductivity are determined. The conducted tests have confirmed a possibility of technological processing, operational safety of chaff slabs with providing of high thermotechnical characteristics.

RELATIONSHIP OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AND INDICATORS OF CEMENT STONE

А. SHVEDOV

The analysis of modern methods of control of concrete strength in the construction of monolithic structures. Analyzed the different criteria used to assess the strength of concrete at different periods of hardening. Examined in detail the use of monitoring concrete strength of its relationship with the electrical resistance. The problems that arise in determining the electrical resistance of concrete during its hardening. The directions for more detailed research to create unbreakable method of control of concrete strength by using the electric field of certain parameters.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE PROSPECT OF DESIGNING OF GASSUPPLY SYSTEMS OF THE HIGH PRESSURE OF THE FIRST CLASS, EXECUTED FROM POLYETHYLENE PIPES, IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

V. BOULAKH, V. STAKHEIKO, O. KARTAVSTEVA, S. BARATYNSKAYA

In article questions of application of polymeric gas pipelines are considered, to note their advantages. Questions on factors of safety factor and application PE 80 and PE 100 for polyethylene gas pipelines and about increase of pressure of gas in systems of gas supply without decrease in criteria of safety are considered. Gas pressure difference in high pressure gas pipelines makes essential impact on expenses on materials that are proved by hydraulic calculation of a gas network. Appeared in the foreign and Russian markets of pipe PE 100 with SDR 9 will allow to project systems of gas supply with working pressure to 1,2 МПа. Economic comparison of expenses of four variants of packing of a linear part of a gas pipeline of a high pressure is resulted. From the point of view of technological aspects increase in initial pressure of gas to 1,2 МПа and designing of systems of gas supply of a high pressure of the first category, executed of polyethylene pipes of mark PE 100, doesn't bear behind itself any complexities and can be quite realized in Belarus.

POWER SAVING UP AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFETY AIR RECOVERY ASPIRATION SYSTEMS OF WOODWORKING ENTERPRISES

T. KOROLEVA, O. KACHAN, I. SHEREMETYEV

The most widespread, traditional and modern wood waste aspiration systems are presenteds Features, benefits and lacks are specified. for each described system. Actions for technology improvement of aspiration systems for the purpose of decrease in their power consumption are offered. Some basic schemes of asoiration systems are investigated, technical and economic comparison under the expense of thermal and electrical energy, capital investments and annual operational expenses is executed for them. The economic variant on a minimum of the resulted expenses is defined. The comparative analysis of various schemes of aspiration systems with air recovery by the most significant criteria is resulted. Recommendations for choice of aspiration systems taking into account technical and economic and technology requirements are made.

TESTS OF PETROWIRE PIPES BY INTERNAL PRESSURE

А. KOZIC

It is presented the working out of Belarus state standard which on law level fixes experimentally approved method of hydraulic tests of petrowire pipes and allows to obtain the data about their deformed condition at various levels of internal pressure, to define a size of destroying pressure. Methodical and technological substantiations of the method as a matter of experience carrying out of industrial tests of extended sites of natural oil pipelines and results of research works on hydraulic tests of trumpet lashes are given. Starting positions for substantiation of a method of hydraulic tests of petrowire pipes, technology and an order of carrying out of tests are considered.

EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION LINEAR THREE-CRITERIA ADJUSTMENT OF LEVELLING GEODETIC NETWORKS

V. YALTYHOV

Application of multicriteria adjustment of geodetic networks (MC) is initiated in 1999. The theory of the method is developed under professor Mitskevich’s leadership and is fully presented for the case of two-criterion adjustment. Since 2010 in order to receive even more significant affect of MC method three-criterion optimization versus two-criterion method is started to be used for adjustment of plane and leveling geodetic networks. Its affectivity is practically proved for networks on plane. Advantages of new method of adjustment are studied in the present paper for two test examples of leveling geodetic networks. Research is conducted using six new software packages: niva 44 – niva 49. Niva 44 is upgraded what led to corrected results of adjustment.

INNOVATION PROPOSAL FOR AUTOMATION OF DESIGNING OF CONDITIONAL EQUATION OF POLE

V. MITSKEVICH, A. GRISHCHENKOV

Conditional equations of pole are used adjustment of geodetic networks by conditions. Comparing adjustment methods by equations and by conditions we see that the latter one is weakly automated on PC, since conditional equations are designed depending on structures of geodetic networks, which are various. When checking measurements for gross errors when applying adjustment by conditions one analyses more often absolute terms in conditional equations of pole. Automation of their designing is the aim of the article. Proposed algorithm for designing of conditional equations of pole is generalpurpose for typical geodetic structures, central systems, geodetic quadrangles and fan. New approach applies “matrix of coupling”. Designing of these matrices does not depend on type of geodetic structures, what can be easily automated when designing polar conditions using PC.

SOLVING THE MULTIPLE LINEAR INTERSECTION ON ELLIPSOID BY NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD

L. ZUEVA, A. STROK, S. SHNITKO

Solving of multiple linear intersection on ellipsoid by methods of blind search, relaxation, gradient method of descent, Gauss (method of linearized iterations) and Newton is analysed. Modern development of satellite measurements is assumed to solve geodetic structures in system of geodetic coordinates without their reduction on the plane. Application of method of nonlinear programming enables solving geodetic structures, which do not have closed formulas or when deriving of such formulas is difficult. Thus, application of described in the article methods allows, first, solving geodetic structures without considering any certain system of plane rectangular coordinates, second, avoiding complicated formulas and algorithms, which appear when solving geodetic tasks on ellipsoid. Investigations show that the best for solving indicated task is relaxation method, since it does not require input of preliminary coordinates of determined points.

EFFECT OF GROSS ERRORS IN INITIAL INFORMATION ON MAGNITUDE OF CONVERGENCE DOMAIN OF ITERATIONS

G. GOLOVAN, E. GRISHCHENKOV, I. SHEVELEV

For successful solving of tasks of preprocessing of measurements one must know the coordinates of points with the precision required by adjustment. Algorithm of computation of original coordinates is tested by applying methods of nonlinear programming, which are used for cases when criteria of efficiency of solving and (or) constrains are termed by nonlinear dependences from parameters. Need for correct approach when choosing initial iteration for solving geodetic extreme tasks using method of Newton-Gauss is mentioned in great amount of publications. In order to prevent the effect of gross errors in information on results of computations one must study issue of effect of gross errors in initial data on extent of convergence domain of iterations in industrial programs.

ADJUSTMENT OF DEPENDENT RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS BY NONLINEAR, LINEAR AND GENERALIZED MULTI-CRITERIA METHOD OF LP-ASSESSMENTS

A. BUDO

Comparison of nonlinear method of Newton and linear method of adjustment is conducted. Formulas of both methods are presented and the results of computations by these methods are discussed. Smallness of vari-ances of coordinates of items from true values applying generalized multi-criteria method of Lp-assessments and least-square method is investigated. Testing of new formulas of generalized method of Lp-assessment is done. Law of changing of deviations of adjusted coordinates, accuracy assessment, measurements’ corrections, fluctuations of values of objective function when changing the degree at the interval 1.0 <= n <= 3.0 with the step ?n = 0.2. The aim of the article is to present knowledge necessary for debugging of the program for test polygon for geodetic quadrangle.

THE REDUCTION OF DISTANCES ON THE MAP PROJECTIONS MERCATOR AND LAMBERT

AKRESH MOHAMMED SABRI ALI

This paper presenting analyze the distortion of distances caused by the ideal scale factor of length for projection of Mercator and Lambert “area study for Libya”, where gives minimize the distortion of distances, by calculates of characteristics for different distances. Also compare son all calculated distances on map projection”plane” within distances calculated on the surface of the ellipsoid. These data applied in Mercator and Lambert projections form condition, when the distance on the plane with correspond to the distance on the surface of the ellipsoid, which takes place in a given direction equidistant projections. This problem has practical applications in navigation. The Maximum distortion for distances up to 30 km in the projections with the optimal scale do not exceed 0.09 m, while For distances up to 110 m to the distortions do not exceed 0.13 m.

RELATIONSHIP OF EXTENSIONS AND THE MAIN PSEUDOINVERSES FOR ADJUSTMENT OF GEODETIC NETWORKS

N. SIROVA

In the mathematical processing of geodetic networks using the extended and main pseudoinverses matrix. The extended matrix is computed using a special formula without the use of pseudoinverse. With its calculation is generally used well-known algorithm for matrix inversion. To calculate the principal elements of the pseudoinverse is used pinv standard feature in the mathematical package Matlab. In this article we propose formulas for the transition from extended to primary pseudoinverse matrix. Applying these formulas do not pseudoinverse is required, and use the procedure for matrix inversion, which can calculate either the standard program or the standard functions inv in the mathematical package Matlab. Formula given in the article can make a universal program of equalization and estimate of the accuracy of free, non-free and zero-free geodetic networks with or without defects in the configuration or construction defects.

RESEARCH OF SOIL CONDITIONS INFLUENCE ON DEFORMATION OF UNDER CRANE`S WAYS OF BRIDGE CRANES OF TEC

G. SHAROGLAZOVA, V. EVSEENKO, D. BELSKY

The estimation of soil bases influence on the change of geometrical parameters under crane’s ways of bridge crane according to geodetic researches with attraction of engineering-geological soil characteristics is done. The conclusion is drawn that at low deformation properties of soils their influence on vertical deformations of under crane’s ways in size makes 10 … 16 % from the admissions established for all set of various factors influences on the stability of these ways.

EVALUATION OF THE FORMULAS OF CALCULATION OF RESOLUTION WHILE SCANNING AERO PHOTO SNAPS AND FORMULAS OF PRECALCULATION OF THE ACCURASY FOR MEASURING THE COORDINATES OF POINTS ON THE AREA ACCORDING TO THE ELLIPS OF ERRORS

A. MIKHEEVA, V. MEDVEDEV

Formulas of calculation of resolution while scanning aero photo snaps for providing accuracy for measuring the coordinates оf the points on the area and formulas of precalculation of the accuracy don’t give the definite result. In the article both the formulas of calculation of the resolution while scanning and the formulas of precalculation of the accuracy for measuring the coordinates of the points on the area on the basis of the data of ellipses of errors are checked up which give the possibility to get the better notion of the mistakes while measuring the coordinates. The calculations have proved that in the formula of calculations of resolution while scanning for providing accuracy for measuring heights there is a mistake. However even after the correction both the formulas of the calculation of resolution while scanning and the formulas of precalculation of the accuracy of measuring the coordinates give understated accuracy. That’s why in this article we come up with the formulas for precalculation of the accuracy for measuring both plane coordinates and the coordinates of heights. For providing greater accuracy a greater scale of photographing had to be chosen or one had to scan snaps with a smaller size of pixel which resulted in a greater amount of work.