Полоцкий государственный университет

Polotsk
State
University

MYTH SEMANTICS OF LAKES AND ISLANDS IN THE TRADITIONAL PICTURE OF BELARUSIANS’ WORLD
V. LOBACH

This article is devoted to symbolic status of lakes and islands in the traditional world view of the Belarusians. Based on analysis of numerous folklore and ethnographic materials come to the conclusion that the structure of the traditional cultural landscape of the lake represent the communicative channel with the other in his chthonic representation. Lake islands symbolize the mythological center of the world and relate to the way a perfect country. As part of local community the lake as other landscape elements performs an information function, which reveals in the provision, correlated with water features, and display the history of the team in its own folklore and mythological dimension. On the other hand, a large number of “sacred” lakes is a specific feature of sacred geography of Belarus and it displays an archaic imagination of space heterogeneity.

THE COMMANDER AND ITS ARMY: MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN ANCIENT ROME (LATE REPUBLIC – EARLY EMPIRE)
S. TELEPEN

Article is devoted the analysis of military leadership in Ancient Rome as welfare phenomenon. In work mechanisms of functioning of the given form of influence of the commander on its army are investigated. Opinions of the scientists investigating the given problem, on the maintenance and character of the Roman control system by an army, vocational training and selection of representatives notables for advancement on command posts are resulted. The special attention is given to such phenomenon, as a personal example of the commander. The conclusion that in the Roman army the personal example of the commander always concerned the major and most an effective remedy of maintenance of military leadership is formulated. The susceptibility of soldiers to such behaviour of the emperor and, accordingly, practical effectiveness of this means was based first of all that the military leader in this case directly appealed to feeling of honour of the soldiers, making active spirit of competitiveness inherent in them, achieving selflessness of soldiers in the most difficult situations.

SACRALIZATION OF THE PRINCELY POWER IN AN EAST SLAVIC SOCIETY
J. KEZHA

In article on the basis of written sources representations about the princely power among clergy and representation about the power at the simple population of the Old Russian earths are reconstructed. In research two concepts of perception of the power of the prince are presented: the ancient tradition of a patrimonial epoch and the Byzantian tradition which dominated in ideological sphere. The power of the prince in ancient representations was under construction on its personal communication between gods and a community. The prince carried out a role of the intermediary (mediator) in relations between human collective and the world of gods. The sacralization of all princely sort was one of the main conditions of perception sacralization the Supreme power. The Byzantian tradition the Greek clergy was which basic representatives, saw the prince as the representative of God on the earth and a conductor of its power. The Byzantian ideas have found the distribution in transferring of capital of the Christian World agree ideas of the main temple which functions were carried out by a cathedral of Sacred Sofia.

THE CREATIVE HERITAGE OF IOHAN, THE ARCHITECT
G. LABOHA

The article is devoted to investigating of historical development of the cult construction monuments by Iohan, an architect. The attention is paid to the personality of the architect, contemporary of St. Evfrosinia of Polotsk. The author’s hypotheses concerning the talented master’s origin and the created temple monuments quantity are considered. The detailed analysis of the architectural-artistic solution of the temples is given, the key characterristics of the monuments erection and decoration are revealed; a short sketch of their actual state is provided.

PERSON IN THE HISTORICAL CULTURAL PROCESS IN BELARUS’ OF 17 – 18 CENTURIES (FROM THE MATERIALS MEMOIRS)
І. VUHLIK

In article “Person in the historical cultural process in Belarus’ of 17 – 18 centuries (from the materials memoirs)” the nature of perception by man of the historical, cultural events of this period is studied. As the basis of article are assumed archive materials. Conclusion about gradual transfer in memoirs from the objective fixation of events no their emotional estimation is done.

SEJMIKS OF THE POLOTSK VOJVODESHIP IN THE REIGN OF AUGUST III
A. MATSUK

In the reign of August ІІІ in Polotsk has taken place 14 envoy sejmiks (dietine, regional assemblies) and 28 deputational sejmiks (gromniczny). From 14 Polotsk envoy sejmiks in elections of envoys has terminated 8 sejmiks. At the envoy sejmiks in Polotsk representatives of local elite were almost exclusively selected. Twice as Polotsk envoys were elected representatives of the Shchytays, Korsakay Udelskys, Hlaskays, Bujnickys, Rypinskys. Only Jan Bujnicky has twice been elected on polotsk sejmik in 1738 and 1758 as envoy. From 28 polotsk deputational sejmiks 10 has terminated with choice of deputies. Among the deputies were enrolled only representatives of the local elite. Four times the deputies are elected representatives of the Korsakay Bobynickys, twice – Svolynskys. Not one nobles in the period from 1736 to 1763 was elected the deputy twice. The analysis of the list of envoys and deputies shows, that only three noblemen in the Polotsk Voivodeship (province) from 1736 to 1763 were elected both envoys, and deputies: Jan Bujnicky (the envoy in 1738 and 1758, the deputy in 1740), Michal Selicky (the envoy in 1762, the deputy in 1736), Geranim Korsak Udzelsky (the envoy in 1738, the deputy in 1744). Elektsionnye Sejmiks to elect voievoda of Polotsk in 1739 (1740) and 1745 were broken and only in 1753 Alexander Sapega was elected voievoda of Polotsk.

FUNDS GILZENOV-SHADURSKIH IN BUSINESS OF A DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN EAST BELARUS OF THE END XVIІІ – THE BEGINNINGS OF THE XX-TH CENTERY
A. SAMUSIK

The scientific article is devoted a problem which remains till now behind frameworks of works of domes-tic and foreign researchers – histories of creation and use in school business of the end XVIІІ – the beginnings of the XX-th century of the largest in Belarus funds Gilzenov-Shadurskih. The historiography analysis has shown an insufficient level of scrutiny of patronage of arts in Rzecz Pospolita. With the account of it in work formation process funds against a political-economical life of the Belarus earths is tracked at this time. The analysis of archival sources has allowed the author to study comprehensively ways of distribution of means and their influence on position of separate educational institutions. Research of evolution of the relation of the authorities to private patronage of arts has given the chance to define specificity of development of an education system in region, and also the factors promoting its rapprochement with imperial school model. Became a subject of separate studying projects Shadurskih on transformation Оswеi into the large cultural-educational centre. In the end of article necessity of revival funds Gilzenov-Shadurskih as the significant charitable action of the international level is noted.

А BEGGAR IN THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE BELARUSIANS OF THE DVINA REGION AT THE END THE 19TH – THE BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES
S. ANDRYEWSKAJA

In this article on the basis of the ethnographic sources is studied an image of a beggar in the traditional culture of the belarusians of the Dvina Region. Here is described a place of the representatives of this social level in the traditional ceremonies and beliefs of the belarusians of the Dvina Region. It is studied a role of the beggars in the multinational ceremonies, giving birth and christening ceremonies of the Dvina Region at the end the 19th – the beginning of 20th centuries. Such interesting facts as specialization between beggars and their secret language are also scrutinized in the work. In this article is also given short analyses of the literature on this problem.

TRADITIONAL FOREST USING CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS IN THE 20 – EARLY 21 CENTURY: HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE PROBLEM
А. BABICH

Based on consideration of a number of ethnographic works, as well as research on folklore, ethno botany, forestry, etc., the author identifies the main stages and trends in the study of the problem. Belarusian ethnology has accumulated a wealth of factual material on traditional forest using culture of Belarusians. In XX – early XXI century number of monographs, articles on the characteristics of the crafts of Belarusians appeared. They reflect issues related to ethno-cultural aspects of forest using. There are works, revealing the ideological representation of the Belarusian space of the forest. Urgency of historiographical study cultural traditions in the Belarusian forest XX – early XXI century is to summarize the information base on the topic, as well as further study and theoretical understanding of the problem.

PARTICIPATION OF CHRISTIAN CLERGY OF BELARUS IN LIBERATION MOVEMENT OF 30th YEARS OF XIX CENTURY
O. KARPOVICH

Events of revolt throughout long time have been forgotten 1830 – 1831 both in Russian, and in the Belarus historical science of XX century questions on a social composition of participants of revolt Practically have not been mentioned, and after all it is the most important key to understanding of all character of revolt. Even less data was about participation of clergy in the various underground organisations after revolt suppression. In given article on the basis of new, earlier not published, materials of the Belarus and Russian archives, and also before the published given domestic and foreign researchers attempt of complex research of degree of participation of representatives of clergy in liberation movement of 30th years of XIX century with accent on revolt of 1831 is conducted.

THE BASIC TENDENCIES AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH
IN BELARUS IN 1861 – 1914
S. VOSOVICH

It is investigated the cultural and educational activity of Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus in 1861 – 1914, that was directed on strengthening of positions of Orthodoxy and Russian culture. The author allocates four stages of the specified work of Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus, their maintenance is revealed and differences are shown. Specificity of cultural and educational activity in comparison with internal provinces of Russian empire is considered. The analysis of conducted research testifies that all activity of Russian Orthodox Church in culture and education spheres on the territories of Belarus in 1861 – 1914 focused on mastering of orthodox dogma bases by the population and strengthening of orthodox belief, education of parishioners in principles of Christian morals and distribution among them a religious way of life.

THE EPARCHIAL BULLETIN IN 1863 – 1920 IN THE TERRITORY OF BELARUS IN THE BLIGHTY HISTORIOGRAPHY
O. RYMKO

There is an analysis of the blighty historiography concerning the research of the eparchial bulletin published in 1863 – 1920 years in the territory of Belarus. The works of research of the eparchial bulletin in the field of philology, journalism and a library science of V.I. Shimolin, G.V. Govin, M.N. Zharskaya as well as the researches of the domestic theologians A. Netsvetaev and P. Chistyakov are considered. Thanking these works we can get to know the appearance and the functioning of the Orthodox press in the territory of Belarus in the specified period with the historical preconditions of the origin of the eparchial editions, with the formation and the development of the system of eparchial periodicals in Belarus. However these researches don’t allow us to present to the full all value of the Belorussian eparchial bulletin as an historical source because at the moment there are no researches of scientists-historians in this field.

TRANSFORMATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF RURAL WOMAN IN A SOCIAL PRODUCTION IN BELARUS IN THE ХХ – BEGINNING ХХI CENTURY
I. LAVRINOVSKAY

On the basis of extensive factual material – archival documents of the National Archives of the Republic of Belarus and the State Archive of Public Associations of the Gomel region, statistics, data from a survey of women living in rural areas, Gomel, Grodno, Vitebsk and Mogilev reg.) conducted by the author in 2009 – 2010, etc., is considered the transformation of professional employment for rural women in Belarus during the XX – XXI centuries. The changes in the employment of rural women in Belarus in the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet periods are analysed. The basic trends of the employment of women in Belarus in agriculture and other industries economy are shown. The factors which influenced the transformation of professional employment rural woman are.

THE POSITION OF THE EPISCOPATE ON THE BELARUSIAN LANDS CONCERNING THE REFORMING OF THE SEMINARIES IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY
V. TABUNOV

The article deals with the proposals of the Orthodox episcopate of the Belarusian lands about reforming seminaries which prepared future priests in the early XX century. Being unable to adjust to new demands, the old educational system preparing applicants for the priesthood led these educational establishments to crisis. It manifested in students missing lessons and services. The authorities which were interested in stabilizing the situation in the country in 1905 – 1907 lost their interest in reforming the main link in the system preparing the Orthodox priesthood after Revolutionary twins had gone down.

LAND USE AND THE PROBLEM OF ITS REGULATION DURING THE NAZI OCCUPATION OF BELARUS
Y. HREBEN

This article is devoted to such an insufficiently explored aspect of the Nazi occupation on the territory of Belarus as a land-use system. The author hypothesizes that the land use is an essential element of the strategy of survival of the civilian population in the harsh conditions of occupation reality. The normative acts of the occupation administration that regulated the system of land use are characterized, the tax system for the right of use of a land parcel for rural and urban population and the system of penalties for non-payment of taxes and natural duties avoidance are reconstructed in the article.

THE UKRAINE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE US FOREIGN POLICI (1992 – 2010 years)
А. KOSOV

The article considers the Ukraine historiography of the US foreign policy in the postbipolar world. The author draws attention on infrastructure and academic resources of the Ukraine American studies. He lights main trends of researches in the Ukraine historiography. The author gives an analysis of opinions of the Ukraine researchers on the current US global and regional policy. Over the recent 20 years, a circle of scientists constantly focusing on the research of the US foreign policy, its principles, priorities and mechanisms has taken shape in the Ukraine American studies. The basic topics of the Ukraine studies on problems of the US foreign policy in 1992 – 2010 years can largely be subdivided as follows: global foreign policy of Washington; Post-Soviet themes (including US-Ukrainian relations); European and Asian problems.